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  • On december 3 1967 53-year-old louis washkansky receives the First human Heart Transplant at groote schuur hospital in Cape town South africa [2]
  • Surgeon christiaan Barnard who trained at the university of Cape town and in The united states Performed the revolutionary medical operation [2]
  • Upon returning to South africa in 1958 Barnard was appointed head of the department of experimental surgery at the groote schuur hospital Cape town [4]
  • All Wikipedia articles written in south african english [4]
  • His technique saved the lives of ten babies in Cape town and was adopted by surgeons in britain and The united states [4]
  • Rose Md who co-founded the Heart transplantation program with dr [3]
  • ‘the world's First human to human Heart transplant’ online available at www.uct.ac.za accessed 04 november 2011 tourism Cape town 2011 [1]
  • Edward stinson Md assisted cardiatric surgeon norman shumway in the First u.s [6]
  • Only a few institutions maintained active Heart Transplant programmes Cape town being one of these [8]
  • Back in Cape town he studied further for his doctorate in medicine but Heart surgery pre-occupied him [5]
  • Chris Barnard division of cardiothoracic surgery university of Cape town groote schuur and associated academic hospitals Cape town [8]
  • There were no laws relating to brain death and organ transplantation in South africa at that time as elsewhere and Barnard elected to take no chances [8]
  • Christiaan chris Barnard was born in 1922 and qualified in medicine at the university of Cape town in 1946 [8]
  • He was promoted to professor of surgical science in the department of surgery at the university of Cape town in 1972 [4]
  • Hardy Md who laid another cornerstone of organ Transplant medicine by founding the program for dialysis and kidney transplantation [3]



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More detailed answers below ...


Heart failure


  • Louis washkansky was suffering from gross Heart Failure with a short time to live and was prepared to take the chance [5]
  • In small animal models [7]

Heart transplantation


  • Rose Md who co-founded the Heart Transplantation program with dr [3]
  • Between december 1967 and november 1974 exclusively orthotopic Heart Transplantation was performed [8]
  • 20 groote schuur and associated academic hospitals are still the only public hospitals undertaking Heart Transplantation in africa [8]
  • Heterotopic Heart Transplantation the clinical programme [8]

Heart transplants


  • Some of the proceeds were used to set up the chris Barnard fund for research into Heart disease and Heart Transplants in Cape town [4]
  • Forty-nine consecutive heterotopic Heart Transplants were performed in Cape town between 1974 and 1983 with moderately good results for that era [8]
  • From november 1974 through december 1983 49 consecutive heterotopic Heart Transplants on 43 patients were performed at groote schuur [4]
  • Ten such Heart Transplants were performed at groote schuur hospital [8]
  • Of the 10 orthotopic Heart Transplants four lived for more than 18 months two of whom became long-term survivors [8]

Heart in


  • Stinson removed white’s Heart In room 12 then walked it over In a basin filled with cold saltwater to room 13 where Shumway was waiting [6]
  • Dirk van zyl who received a new Heart In 1971 was the longest-lived recipient surviving over 23 years [4]
  • A well-known instance is when baby fae received a baboon Heart In 1984 [7]

Heart surgery


  • Back in Cape town he studied further for his doctorate in medicine but Heart Surgery pre-occupied him [5]
  • He was introduced to the heart-lung machine and Barnard was allowed to transfer to the service run by open Heart Surgery pioneer walt lillehei [4]
  • By the early 1980s Barnard was tiring of the stresses and strains of clinical Heart Surgery and was losing interest in running a busy department [8]
  • Due to the complexity of factors involved in a successful Heart Surgery it was only performed in a handful of cases prior to the second world war [7]
  • Their contribution to the knowledge and practice of Heart Surgery has changed the outcome for many people with end-stage Heart failure [7]
  • Doctors and surgeons experimented on animals to hone their skills so that they would have a better chance of performing a Heart Surgery on a person [7]
  • As a testament to his skill there were no fatalities and Heart Surgery came to be regarded as a reliable option [7]

Transplant at


  • On december 3 1967 53-year-old louis washkansky receives the First human Heart Transplant At groote schuur hospital in Cape town South africa [2]
  • He performed the First kidney Transplant At groote schuur on mrs edith black and everything functioned perfectly [5]

Transplant in


  • On the night of 2 3 december 1967 Barnard performed the world’s First human-to-human orthotopic Heart Transplant In his Patient louis washkansky [8]
  • Shumway performed the First adult human-to-human Heart Transplant In 1968 [7]
  • Barnard performed the First such heterotopic Heart Transplant In 1974 [4]
  • American surgeon norman Shumway achieved the First successful Heart Transplant In a dog at stanford university In california In 1958 [2]

Transplant operation


  • Barnard performed the world's First human-to-human Heart Transplant Operation in the early morning hours of sunday 3 december 1967 [4]
  • Christiaan Barnard with his team performed the world’s First human-to-human Heart Transplant Operation on 3 december 1967 [8]
  • Barnard's second Transplant Operation was conducted on 2 january 1968 and the Patient philip blaiberg survived for 19 months [4]
  • When they received an emergency call from the hospital he deduced that the Transplant Operation was imminent. the news spread fast [6]

Relevant Images

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where was the first heart transplant performedsource:https://columbiasurgery.org/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/heart_transplant_or_history.jpg?itok=K1SIuXVj

where was the first heart transplant performedsource:https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c0/Christiaan_Barnard_1969.jpg




References

  1. https://www.sahistory.org.za/dated-event/dr-chris-barnard-performs-worlds-first-human-heart-transplant
  2. https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-human-heart-transplant
  3. https://columbiasurgery.org/brief-history-transplantation-nypcolumbia
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christiaan_Barnard
  5. https://www.westerncape.gov.za/general-publication/chris-barnard-performs-worlds-first-heart-transplant
  6. https://stanmed.stanford.edu/2018winter/fifty-years-since-first-us-adult-heart-transplant-stanford.html
  7. https://www.acls.net/a-history-of-heart-transplants.htm
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4200566/

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